VOLVO Trucks North America went to the Technology and Maintenance Council annual meeting with two key announcements. First, Volvo's 2007 diesel engines are ready to go into production. Second, those engines will add $7,500 to the price of a 2007 model year Volvo truck.
The Volvo engine lineup includes the 11-liter D11, 13-liter D13, and 16-liter D16. All three engines use high-efficiency cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in combination with a diesel particulate filter to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulates (primarily soot).
“We started work on these engines five years ago, and they are designed with the 2010 emission levels in mind,” Peter Karlston, president and chief executive officer of Volvo Trucks North America, said during the press conference on February 13 in Tampa, Florida. “These engines were developed and optimized for our customers in North America, and we believe the new engines will get better fuel economy than the ones currently in production.”
Scott Kress, Volvo senior vice-president of sales & marketing, added that the surcharge on the new engines is necessary because “Volvo has made a very substantial investment developing not just engines but complete vehicle solutions to meet the 2007 standards.”
The new engine family gives Volvo customers a complete range of options for their operations in North America. The engine builds upon the legacy of the Volvo D12, which Volvo claims was the highest-selling heavy-duty engine model in the world in 2005.
The Volvo D11 will be available in the Volvo VNM (medium hood length) and Volvo VNL (long hood) models. The engine will be available with 325 horsepower to 405 horsepower, with torque from 1250 to 1450 lb-ft. Primary applications will be pick-up and delivery, less-than-truckload, and regional distribution. The D11's low weight of 2,175 pounds also suits it for weight-sensitive applications such as petroleum transport.
The D13 will be available in the Volvo VNM and Volvo VNL tractors, as well as the Volvo VHD vocational truck and tractor. It will be available with 335 hp to 485 hp, with torque levels from 1,350 to 1,650 lb-ft, and weighs 2,550 pounds. Primary applications for the D13 are less than truckload, truckload, linehaul freight, and vocational duties.
The D16 was first introduced for North American use in 2005. For 2007, it has been updated to the new emissions standards and will again be offered in the Volvo VNL and Volvo VT. Horsepower ratings range from 450 to 600, and torque ratings range from 1650 lb-ft to 2050 lb-ft. The D16 weighs 3,070 pounds and provides maximum power for applications such as heavy haul, owner-operators, and small premium fleets.
Volvo Trucks North America will also continue to offer the popular 15-liter Cummins ISX with 2007 emissions technology as an option in its Volvo VN and Volvo VT highway tractors.
The new engine family draws upon Volvo's 60-plus years of diesel innovation and experience to deliver sophisticated technology for customers. Some important features of the new Volvo engines include:
Ultra High Fuel Injection Pressure (UHFP), with maximum fuel injection pressures raised 20% over the Volvo D12 to 35,000 psi. The higher pressures improve fuel atomization and dispersal in the cylinder for more efficient combustion and lower emissions.
Multiple fuel injections per stroke utilize a new proprietary actuation strategy for the dual-solenoid unit fuel injector Volvo introduced on its 2002 Volvo D12. This gives extremely precise control over fuel injection for emissions control and engine performance.
A single-stage variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) is equipped with a sliding nozzle and electronic actuation. The VGT delivers enhanced engine response and driveability, as well as greater backpressure for the EGR system. The electronic actuator gives more precise control than a pneumatic actuator. Both the turbo bearing housing and the actuator are water-cooled. Volvo first introduced this technology on the D16 in 2005.
Increased peak cylinder pressures allow the engine to extract more energy from each drop of fuel. A single-piece, rigid deck cylinder head with four valves per cylinder and 38 cylinder head fasteners is built to withstand the higher injection and cylinder pressures for increased durability and reliability. Like the engine block, the head is cast with proprietary technology in Volvo's own foundry in Skövde, Sweden. The steel cylinder head gasket is also designed for higher combustion pressures for increased reliability and durability.
Steel “ladder” reinforcement increases stiffness of main-bearing area for today's combustion pressures for increased reliability and durability. Rear-mounted gear train with camshaft damper drives the overhead camshaft, air compressor, and power steering pump.
The viscous damper on the camshaft absorbs the torsional vibrations generated by high-pressure fuel injection and routes those vibrations into the flywheel, where they are effectively absorbed. This increases reliability and durability, and contributes to longer life for engine-driven components. Placing the gear train at the rear of the engine block also improves air flow and cooling around the engine.
Volvo VECTRO EMS engine electronics with enhanced diagnostics build on the established engine controls and extensive diagnostic capabilities of the previous generations of VECTRO. The engine electronics easily handle the additional requirements of the DPF's operation.
Volvo is an integrated manufacturer of trucks and engines. This expertise allowed Volvo to design the new engines to fit into the Volvo VN, Volvo VT, and Volvo VHD trucks with minimal changes. The new engines with their high-capacity cooling systems were fully integrated into each truck's design with the result that the engines require no exterior alterations to the trucks.
Serviceability was a major consideration in the design of the new Volvo diesel engines. Although the engines have different displacements, they share a common architecture and design. This means they also share common service and maintenance techniques. Technicians do not have to develop special expertise for each engine.
Oil drain intervals for the new engines are, depending on duty cycle: up to 30,000 miles for the D11; up to 45,000 miles for the D13; and up to 50,000 miles for the D16.
The new family of engines will be assembled at the Volvo Powertrain North America plant in Hagerstown, Maryland, on production lines specifically installed for these engines. The Volvo Group has invested $150 million in the Hagerstown plant to bring Volvo engine assembly to North America, with state-of-the-art manufacturing and testing capabilities.